What Is Psychology?
‘Psyche’ means the human soul and ‘logia’ means science. The American Psychological Association defines psychology simply as the study of the mind and behavior. General purposes of psychology:
-To identify the behaviors of organism
-To explain behaviors
-To predict the behaviors of organism and to control their behavior in certain circumstances
In addition that, psychology researches invisible mental process such as feeling, imagining and learning.
Psychology collects datas, theorizes and hypothesizes based on theories and controls them.
Modern psychology consists of a lot of applied and experimental subfield. They are educational psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, physiological psychology, social psychology,developmental psychology, experimental psychology, neuropsychology, psychometric psychology, personality psychology, health psychology, traffic psychology, forensic psychology, sport psychology, religious psychology etc.
Developmental psychology examines all steps of development and alteration of human in terms of physical, mental, social and emotional aspect. It has subfields such as child psychology, adolescent psychology etc.
Physiological psychology examines the biological basis of human behaviors, thoughts and emotions. Subfields of physiological psychology are neuropsychology, biological psychology and behavioral genetics. Neuropsychologists examine brain and nervous system; biological psychologists examine biochemistry of our body, hormones and drugs that effects our brain and our mood; behavioral genetics examine hereditary effects on normal or abnormal behavior.
Experimantal psychology researches on psychological process such as learning, memory, perception, thinking, motivation and emotions. Subfield of experimental psychology is psychometric psychology and it creates measurement tools and tests that other psychology subfields can use.
Personality psychology examines the difference between persons in terms of sociality, honety, emotional stability, self confidence, flexibility, complience and curious to new experience etc.
Clinical psychology is responsible for diagnosis, causes and treatment of psychological illnesses. Generally, psychological counselors deal with daily problems, difficulty in decide, problematic relationships etc. Clinical psychology has also subfields such as child clinical psychology, adolescent clinical psychlogist etc.
Social psychologist examine the effect of social situations on person, behaviors of people in social settings and interpersonal relationships.
Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological principle to work area. They work on staff selection and education, improving the working condition and productivity.